There are even some indicators that seem bizarre, but do appear to correlate with the economic cycle. For instance, the Hemline Index, a theory first presented by an economist in 1926, suggests that hemlines on women's dresses rise along with stock prices. In good economies, hemlines get shorter (as seen in the 1960s), and in poor economic times, (such as the 1929 Wall Street crash), hemlines can drop almost overnight. It sounds silly enough, but in 2010, research confirmed the correlation, suggesting that the economic cycle leads the hemline with about three years.
While there are numerous leading indicators that can foretell the future of a nation’s economy, there are few metrics that serve to predict its spiritual direction. Such metrics can be useful, though, which is why I want to make the case for what might seem like an unusual spiritual indicator: Annual baptisms in the Southern Baptist Convention (SBC).
On first consideration, such a metric may not seem to be all that important -- even for the SBC, much less to other denominations and traditions in American Christianity. As Dr. Paige Patterson, the president of the SBC’s largest seminary recently wrote, “The one statistic that does concern me is the diminution of baptisms.” But while increasing baptisms should not be the focus of the SBC (or any other denomination) I believe that metric can serve as a proxy for the growth or decline of what is often dubbed “mere Christianity.”
Christians believe, of course, that the spread and growth of the faith is ultimately dependent on the work of the Holy Spirit. But we also recognize that Jesus has tasked us with carrying his message throughout the world. In the passage often referred to as the “Great Commission,” Jesus says to “go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you (Matthew 28:19-20). Southern Baptists take this call so seriously that in 2012 the SBC adopted an auxiliary name for member churches that want to use it: "Great Commission Baptists."
To become a member of an SBC-affiliated church, an individual must undergo baptism by immersion in water, an “act of obedience symbolizing the believer's faith in a crucified, buried, and risen Savior, the believer's death to sin, the burial of the old life, and the resurrection to walk in newness of life in Christ Jesus.” After baptism, the new believer is expected to take up their role in evangelism and missions, carrying out the Great Commission to “make disciples of all nations.”
New baptisms recorded by SBC churches therefore serve as a unique metric that identifies a newly professed believer of the orthodox (albeit Protestant) faith who is willing to share the message of Christianity with the rest of the world. (This number can only be used as general metric for “new believers,” though, since some of the baptisms will include Christians who switched from faith traditions that did not require baptism.)
Despite the limits of the metric, there are several reasons why baptisms in the SBC may portend the future of Christianity in America.
The magnitude effect: The SBC is huge. With nearly 16 million members, it’s the largest Protestant body in the United States and the country’s second largest Christian body after the Catholic Church. Because of its size, the “mere Christian” elements of the SBC can serve as a potentially representative sample of what is happening in American Christianity as a whole. If baptisms are increasing or declining in the SBC, the numbers of Americans becoming Christian (in whatever denomination) is likely to also be increasing or decreasing.